How does carbon capture work?

1. Energy-from-waste facility
Waste arrives and is heated at a high temperature to create electrical energy. This generates a flue gas which includes carbon dioxide and a range of other gases.

2. Capture and absorption
The flue gas is sent to the carbon capture plant where it is cooled and treated to remove any remaining contaminants using a water scrubbing system. The wastewater will then be discharged to sewer. The flue gas then passes to an absorber column where a chemical reaction takes place. Amine (a solvent that only binds to carbon dioxide) is mixed with the flue gas.


The amine containing carbon dioxide leaves the bottom of the absorber column. The treated flue gasses leave the top of the absorber column and are then directed back to the energy-from-waste stack. Amines have been safely used in this way for decades – for example they are used to remove carbon dioxide from the air in submarines so submariners can stay underwater for months at a time.

3. Separation
The carbon dioxide and amine mixture would then be put through an amine regenerator which would heat it to between 90ºC and 120ºC to separate the amine solvent from the carbon dioxide. The separated amine solvent would be recycled and re‑used in the carbon capture process.

4. Compression
The carbon dioxide would then be dehydrated and compressed before being sent via a connecting pipeline to the main Tees Valley carbon capture pipeline.

5. Transport
The pipeline will transport the carbon dioxide 145 km to an aquifer under the North Sea where it will be safely stored and monitored. The pipeline is managed by Northern Endurance Partnership (NEP) – a partnership between bp, Equinor, National Grid, Shell and Total, with bp leading as operator.